The transfer of new technologies across the Atlantic also shaped the development Literature on industrial concentration literature in the United States. Marx, for Literature on industrial concentration, saw not only universal monopoly but also extreme concentration of wealth and income as ultimate and inevitable results of capitalism.
So far, it has been possible to study long trends only in the case of the United States. Establishments and products are grouped together mainly on the basis of technological, not economic, characteristics.
For any given number of firms greater than one, the index increases with the coefficient of variation. For instance, comparison of U. Unfortunately, no systematic theory of industrial structure has yet emerged from studies of this type to command broad agreement among professional economists.
In the first place, systematic and comprehensive statistics on industrial structure are limited primarily to the areas of manufacturing, mining, and public utilities. Journal of Political Economy A standard comprehensive measure of this nature is the Herfindahl index—the summed squares of firm sizes, with the sizes expressed as proportions of the total industry size.
Thomas Jefferson, for instance, writing near the close of the eighteenth century, believed that the machine would blend harmoniously into the open countryside of the American Republic rather than produce the overcrowded and polluted cities of Europe.
In other words, the Herfindahl index is the squared coefficient of variation plus one, the sum divided by the number of firms. However, such a response was not universally shared. During the initial stages of the Industrial Revolution in England, the literati, for the most part, supported the new discoveries of science, often promoting their application in literary reviews.
The meaning and significance of concentration indexes are affected by practical as well as conceptual problems. In Canada and the United Kingdom, the minimum number is three. In the case of Japan, the degree of concentration is now generally higher than in the United States for manufacturing industries that can be matched with U.
By construction the curve will rise to the right at a nonincreasing rate and generally at a decreasing rate throughout.
For example, suppose two industries show the same high concentration ratio for the four leading firms but industry B has twice as many firms as industry A. A final problem exists in matching firms with industries, a procedure that normally requires access to unpublished data.
Not only have scholars concentrated on the canonical works by major authors of the period, but they have increasingly focused their attention on contemporary reactions found in magazines, newspapers, and popular novels in an effort to better understand the culture of the period. If defined on an establishment basis, value of output and similar data represent the total for all commodities produced by establishments assigned to the industry, assignment being based on the commodity of principal value in the establishment in question.
For analysis of industrial concentration, statistics should generally be compiled on a product basis, but this is not always possible. These include concentration ratios for specified numbers of firms in multiples of three or four, areas under portions of the concentration curve, partial Herfindahl indexes, and occupancy counts.
This relation being taken into account, concentration also shows a significant direct relation to average firm size but no significant relation one way or the other to inequality of firm size within an industry.
Arthur Monopoly in British Industry.
For example, the 80 per cent occupancy count is the number of firms, arrayed from largest to smallest, that together make up 80 per cent of the size of the industry.
American Economic Review Even if good fits could always be obtained, it would be prohibitively expensive, in terms of both collecting and processing data, to analyze an economy of any size in this way. In studies of manufacturing, concentration has been found to be inversely related to size of industry: Given the current state of economic theory and leaving aside problems of identifying industries, one should not expect any simple correlation between pricing behavior and degree of concentration as reflected by the described indexes, except in extreme cases.
New York and London:Agglomeration, Industrial Districts and Industry Clusters: Foundations of the 20th Century Literature Agglomeration, Industrial Districts and Industry Clusters focuses on the foundations laid by the early research on agglomerations, industrial districts, and industry clusters that was published in the 20th century.
Industrial concentration, influencing as it does the competitive nature of private enterprise, has been of interest as long as the market economy itself.
The normal interest has been stimulated from time to time by ascendance of various theories of history predicting that economies based on private. Required upper-division courses are: One course chosen from: ENGL - British Literature to ; ENGL - American Literature to. Review of empirical literature on industrial concentration.
Suttons work looks at the numbers of firms in the market and their shares of production in the market and the relationship between that in a different oligopoly models where a small number of firms controls the majority of the market share, the study also looks at the difference.
THE GAINS AND LOSSES FROM INDUSTRIAL CONCENTRATION* SAM PELTZMAN University of Chicago and National Bureau of Economic Research No field in the industrial organization literature has been as well plowed as the.
The Bachelor of Science in Industrial Design with Concentration in Product Design and Development (BSID/PDD) is a program for students who intend to focus their studies on product-oriented design applications.Download